Manipulating :before and :after content via JavaScript

When someone asks how they can use JavaScript to change the content of :before and :after CSS pseudo-classes, the usual answer is, “You can’t.” Since those CSS pseudo-classes aren’t part of the DOM, you can’t use DOM methods to manipulate them.

Unsurprisingly, the real answer is a bit more complex. Here’s a rundown of all the available techniques, with their pros and cons.

I’m going to start with what’s widely considered the “best” approach:

1) Add/remove a predetermined class

In this approach, you’ve already created a class in your CSS with a different :after or :before style. Place this “new” class later in your stylesheet to make sure it overrides:

p:before {
    content: "foo";
p.special:before {
    content: "bar";

Then you can easily add or remove this class using jQuery (or vanilla JavaScript):

$('p').on('click', function() {

  • Pros: Easy to implement with jQuery; quickly alters multiple styles at once; enforces separation of concerns (isolating your CSS and JS from your HTML)
  • Cons: CSS must be pre-written, so the content of :before or :after isn’t completely dynamic

2) Add new styles directly to the document’s stylesheet

It’s possible to use JavaScript to add styles directly to the document stylesheet, including :after and :before styles. jQuery doesn’t provide a convenient shortcut, but fortunately the JS isn’t that complicated:

var str = "bar";
document.styleSheets[0].addRule('p.special:before','content: "'+str+'";');

.addRule() and the related .insertRule() methods are fairly well-supported today.

As a variation, you can also use jQuery to add an entirely new stylesheet to the document, but the necessary code isn’t any cleaner:

var str = "bar";

If we’re talking about “manipulating” the values, not just adding to them, we can also read the existing :after or :before styles using a different approach:

var str = window.getComputedStyle(document.querySelector('p'), ':before') 

We can replace document.querySelector('p') with $('p')[0] when using jQuery, for slightly shorter code.

  • Pros: any string can be dynamically inserted into the style
  • Cons: original styles aren’t altered, just overridden; repeated (ab)use can make the DOM grow arbitrarily large

3) Alter a different DOM attribute

Most browsers allow you to use attr() in your CSS to read a particular DOM attribute. By combining this with content: in some carefully-prepared CSS, we can change the content (but not other properties, like margin or color) of :before and :after dynamically:

p:before {
    content: attr(data-before);
    color: red;
    cursor: pointer;


$('p').on('click', function () {

This can be combined with the second technique if the CSS can’t be prepared ahead of time:

var str = "bar";

document.styleSheets[0].addRule('p:before', 'content: attr(data-before);');

$('p').on('click', function () {
    $(this).attr('data-before', str);

  • Pros: Doesn’t create endless extra styles
  • Cons: attr in CSS only reads strings, not URLs or RGB colors

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